On this page you'll find the definitions of the most important terms used in the 'Frequently Asked Questions'.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a European regulation that standardises the rules for processing personal data. Both by private companies and public authorities throughout the European Union. The purpose is not only to guarantee the protection of personal data within the European Union, but also to regulate the free movement of data within the European internal market.

The GDPR applies worldwide to all enterprises and organisation that process personal data within the European Union. No distinction is made between independent data retention organisations or those that pay for this service. GDPR is primarily concerned with privacy and not so much with copyright. Also see the Quick reference guide on GDPR.


Academia is the online access to almost 90,000 audiovisual sources for higher education in the Netherlands. This is a selection from the archives of the Dutch Institute for Sound and Vision (Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid – NIBG).

 A licence to Academia concluded by the education institution gives staff and students of the member institutions the right to material from the Dutch broadcasting corporations that is archived by the NIBG for use within the framework of education. In addition to older material, currently transmitted material is also archived by the NIBG. An education institution can obtain a licence to Academia at an annual rate that is related to its number of students and lecturers.


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Whenever you use somebody else's work you have to give credit to the original author. Always ensure the correct acknowledgement of sources. This is always obligatory. You can find a practical guide for the acknowledgement of sources in higher education on The APA guidelines explained page.

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De APA-richtlijnen uitgelegd (in Dutch)


The right to quote allows the reproduction of a part of a text or image without the creator’s permission, provided you attribute it correctly. A quotation must be functional; it must be intended to support your work and not solely as decoration. Would you like more information about quotation and acknowledgement of sources? Then read The APA guidelines explained.

Copyright collecting societies

Copyright collecting societies manage the exploitation rights of certain groups of rightholders. Permission to use multiple works of various creators can quickly be obtained from these copyright collecting societies for a payment.

They issue licences for the reuse of works at standard rates. These rates are lower for non-commercial, education institutions than for commercial parties. The most well-known copyright collecting societies in the Netherlands are listed below:

•    Buma/Stemra manages the copyright of composers, text writers and publishing companies.

•    Pictoright manages the copyright of artists, photographers, illustrators and architects.

•    Norma manages the neighbouring rights of performing artists such as actors, musicians and dancers.

•    Sena distributes the monies for audio from neighbouring rights for the use of music for performing musicians and record companies.

•    Stichting Lira is a copyright organisation for and by writers, translators and freelance journalists. Lira (collectively) manages copyrights and claims and distributes remunerations to all text writers who are entitled to them. Through the Lira Fund, Lira supports their social and cultural position.

•    Stichting UvO manages the copyright of publishers. The Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences had concluded a collective agreement with Stichting PRO for the use of short passages in universities of applied sciences.

•    Videma manages the copyright of the rightholders of film works. The Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences had concluded a collective agreement with Videma for screening film works in universities of applied sciences.

•    VOICE is the organisation in which all of these collective management organisations are united. They also handle the CS hallmark which is tested annually by an independent auditor.

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The English word used for auteursrecht. Although auteursrecht is almost always translated using the term copyright this translation is not strictly correct.

There is a subtle difference between these two terms because they refer to two rights systems based on different principles.

Copyright (droit d’auteur) protects the author as a natural person. Based on copyright, the author acquires what is known as moral rights, which are inalienable in most cases. Copyright is more to protect the investment that has been made in a work. There are no moral rights in this system.

The copyright regime predominates in Anglo Saxon countries such as the United States, Great Britain and Australia. Auteursrecht applies in countries in continental Europe and their former colonies. 

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What is copyright?

Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an organisation that has developed a number of copyright licences under which a creator can grant others advance permission to reuse their work, such as copying and publishing, at no cost.

Creative Commons licences are based on four building blocks. These building blocks set four conditions of use which can be combined into six different licences. The four building blocks are: 
•    There must be attribution 
•    Only non-commercial reuse is permitted 
•    Derivatives are permitted 
•    A derivative must be published under the same CC licence as the original work (share alike); this licence stimulates the growth of use of CC licences.

The attribution condition is a mandatory component of every licence. The licences can be combined together. But permitting derivatives and indicating that a derivative must be published under the same CC licence are not compatible in one and the same licence. As a result of this, six different combinations are possible.

In addition to the actual licences there are also two other tools, namely the CC0 public domain dedication and the Public Domain Mark. These are not licences, but ways of making clear that the rightholder wishes to waive their copyright or that it is a work that is not subject to copyright (any longer).

A rightholder who wants to place their work on the Internet can therefore decide to associate it with a CC licence; one that indicates that a derivative must be published under the same CC licence for instance. Others are then free to reuse the work for education purposes also. We therefore strongly recommend using the CC licence for publishing your own material. However, the person wanting to publish the material must actually own all of the rights.

The CC licences are only one variant under which the author specifies the extent to which his or her work can be further distributed and the conditions under which this is permitted. There are other licences with a similar effect to the CC licence. An author who publishes their work under these types of licences must always make it known. If there is no mention of licence conditions, it must be assumed that permission for reuse has not been granted.

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Reader scheme

The Reader scheme is a contract between the Dutch Publishers Association (Nederlands Uitgeversverbond – NUV) / Stichting PRO (Publication and Reproduction Rights Organisation) and higher education (through the Association of Universities in the Netherlands (VSNU) and Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences).

This contract contains agreements on copying copyright protected material to educational publications, such as readers. This contract relates to both the conditions and to the ‘fair’ compensation.

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Het exploitatierecht slaat op het exclusieve recht van de maker van een werk van letterkunde, wetenschap of kunst om het werk openbaar te maken en het werk te verveelvoudigen.

Onder openbaar maken valt o.a. het uitzenden van een programma, het opvoeren van een toneelstuk of het in druk laten verschijnen van een boek. Ook het uploaden van een werk op het internet is een vorm van openbaarmaking.

Onder de verveelvoudiging van een werk  wordt mede verstaan de vertaling, de muziekschikking, de verfilming of toneelbewerking en in het algemeen iedere gehele of gedeeltelijke bewerking of nabootsing in gewijzigden vorm, welke niet als een nieuw, oorspronkelijk werk moet worden aangemerkt. Exploitatierechten zijn overdraagbaar.

Intellectual property rights

Intellectual property rights relate to the copyright, neighbouring rights, database rights and industrial property legal areas.

Copyright is regulated under the Dutch Copyright Act, the Neighbouring Rights Act and the Database Act among others. A special form of copyright is music copyright. Author contract law was changed in mid-2015. The most important changes made are the right to fair compensation, deed required for a licence and the best-seller clause.

Industrial property includes patent rights, trademark rights, trade name rights, drawing and models rights, chip rights, topography rights and breeder’s rights. For instance, trade mark rights include registering a trade mark with the BBIE in The Hague. 

Leenrecht (in Dutch)

De regels omtrent het uitlenen van auteursrechtelijk materiaal door bibliotheken (Auteurswet: artikelen 12, 15c-g).

Stichting Leenrecht incasseert en verdeelt de leenrechtvergoedingen.

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Open access

Under the Budapest Open Access Initiative, an article is ‘open access’ if the article can freely be downloaded, copied, distributed, printed or searched.

The author has granted a non-exclusive licence for wide (re)use, but has retained copyright. The latter even allows the work to be made accessible via the Internet or to be used as material for lectures. Therefore, it is important to know what freedom copyright provides for allowing ‘open access’ publication.

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Open Educational Resources (OER)

Educational resources are “any materials that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help students archive desired learning objectives.”[1] These materials may include text, image or video but also other materials and forms. All teaching materials are subject to copyright.


Open teaching materials can be recognised by a user licence, for instance a Creative Commons (CC)-licence. For more information about the various types of CC-licences, see the Quick reference guide for finding terms of use.

Websites where you can find open teaching materials include WikiWijsMerlot and OER Commons.


Agreement on the publication of film works

The agreement for publishing film works is an agreement between the copyright collecting society Videma (manages the copyright of the rightholders of film works) and the universities of applied sciences (through the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences).

This agreement grants permission for the free use of TV programmes and films such as those represented by VidemaVidema represents all TV programmes that are broadcast on the public broadcasting corporation channels and a large number of commercial channels. The Videma licence conditions apply to the use.

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Portrait rights

Portrait rights apply to the use of a portrait. Portrait rights gives the person portrayed the right, under certain conditions, to object to the publication of a photograph, film or image depicting him or her. If a person is recognisable on the photograph, the photograph is considered a portrait. The facial features are not only important here but also the degree of recognisability of the person depicted.

Under Dutch law there are two types of portraits: commissioned and not commissioned. A commissioned portrait may only be published with permission of all those portrayed. A portrait that is made without having been commissioned may in principle be published without permission although the person concerned may oppose it. You must take the interests of the photographed person into consideration. Would you like to know more? Make sure to read the Quick reference guide for the use of photographs and images.


Privacy by Default

The research plan must clearly describe how you will guarantee data protection and whether the correct technical and organisational (security) measures have been taken at every step in the research process. The principle of data minimisation may help with this: do not collect (sensitive) data that is not really needed for the research.

Privacy by Design

The research plan must clearly describe how you will guarantee data protection and whether the correct technical and organisational (security) measures have been taken at every step in the research process. The principle of data minimisation may help with this: do not collect (sensitive) data that is not really needed for the research.

Preservation copy

Libraries may make a copy of lawfully acquired material to "preserve it from decay".

The Copyright Act, in Article 16n, precisely sets the limits for making a preservation copy. It is allowed only for the restoration of a copy, to prevent decay of the copy of the work, or to keep a copy of the work consultable if the technology becomes obsolete.


The possibility for persons connected to institutions and companies to copy from newspapers, magazines, books and other copyrighted work (Copyright Act: Article 1 and 16h).

Stichting Reprorecht collects and distributes the reproduction rights remunerations.

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Stichting Reprorecht Onderwijs


A repository is a system (hardware and software), with associated processes and support, that can contain information in various forms (e.g. texts, data sets, image or sound).

Higher education institutions provide their publications and research data via repositories. Nationally, the Higher Professional Education Knowledge Bank (HBO Kennisbank) and NARCIS provide access to publications and research data from the repositories of institutions such as universities of applied sciences and research universities.

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Scraping is een techniek waarbij alle of bepaalde informatie op een website (door middel van software) automatisch wordt uitgelezen, gekopieerd en opgeslagen in een aparte database.

Soms kan het scrapen van een website een inbreuk op het auteursrecht opleveren. Dit geldt als de informatie een eigen oorspronkelijk karakter heeft en een persoonlijk stempel van de maker draagt. In dat geval heeft de houder van het auteursrecht het alleenrecht om het werk openbaar te maken en te verveelvoudigen. Openbaar maken is bijvoorbeeld het publiceren van een wetenschappelijk artikel. Het verveelvoudigen is bijvoorbeeld het kopiëren van een boek. Wanneer een werk auteursrechtelijk is beschermd, mag je deze in principe niet zonder toestemming van de maker openbaar maken of verveelvoudigen.

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SHERPA/RoMEO is the most important database with the policy of scientific publishers in the field of Open Access.

RoMEO is short for RightsMEtadata for Open Archiving. The database makes it possible to see, in a clear and uniform way, the Open Access options provided by a specific periodical.

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In 2015, the House of Representatives and the Senate adopted Taverne's amendment. This became Article 25fa of the Dutch Copyright Act: an author of a short scientific work may make it openly available after a reasonable period of time, provided that the work is based on research funded at least in part with public funds.

This is particularly important for researchers at universities, where in many cases the copyright of scientific works lies with the author rather than the employer. There has long been uncertainty about the exact effect of the amendment. In 2019, the Association of Universities (VSNU) launched the national project "You share, we take care," for which the National Open Science Program elaborated the amendment into practical principles: the finally published version of an article, conference contribution, or book chapter in a collection may be made openly available in an institutional repository six months after its first appearance online, regardless of any restrictive guidelines from publishers.

At universities of applied science, often the employer, rather than the author himself, holds the copyright on scholarly works created. If universities place the copyright with the author, the author can also make their scholarly publication(s) openly available through the Taverne Amendment.

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Home copy

A home copy is the designation for a photo, text or digital copy that someone makes for their own practice, study or use.

The Home Copy Foundation collects and distributes the home copy levies.

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Statement by the provider of a work in which they declare that either they own the rights to the material or that they indemnify someone else against any and all claims that a third party could make regarding the material.