On this page you'll find the definitions of the most important terms used in the 'Frequently Asked Questions'.


Academia is the online access to almost 90,000 audiovisual sources for higher education in the Netherlands. This is a selection from the archives of the Dutch Institute for Sound and Vision (Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid – NIBG).

 A licence to Academia concluded by the education institution gives staff and students of the member institutions the right to material from the Dutch broadcasting corporations that is archived by the NIBG for use within the framework of education. In addition to older material, currently transmitted material is also archived by the NIBG. An education institution can obtain a licence to Academia at an annual rate that is related to its number of students and lecturers.


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Bronvermelding (in Dutch)

Bronvermelding is het aangeven van de oorsprong van informatie en van verwerkte teksten, afbeeldingen en beeldfragmenten, die zijn gebruikt voor het creëren van een gepubliceerd werk.

Bronvermeldingen dienen de lezers of kijkers in staat te stellen de betrouwbaarheid van de informatie te beoordelen, om anderen de gelegenheid te geven de informatie uit te diepen door nader onderzoek of deze te corrigeren en geven de maker van het origineel de eer en waardering waar hij of zij recht op heeft. Teksten en ideeën van anderen mogen niet zonder bronvermelding in een eigen document gepresenteerd worden, dat is plagiaat. Bij het gebruikmaken van andermans werk is bronvermelding auteursrechtelijk verplicht.

Het verwijzen naar bronnen kan op diverse manieren, op veel hogescholen en universiteiten worden de APA richtlijnen gehanteerd.

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De APA-richtlijnen uitgelegd (handleiding, pdf)

Copyright collecting societies

Copyright collecting societies manage the exploitation rights of certain groups of rightholders. Permission to use multiple works of various creators can quickly be obtained from these copyright collecting societies for a payment.

They issue licences for the reuse of works at standard rates. These rates are lower for non-commercial, education institutions than for commercial parties. The most well-known copyright collecting societies in the Netherlands are listed below:

•    Buma/Stemra manages the copyright of composers, text writers and publishing companies.

•    Pictoright manages the copyright of artists, photographers, illustrators and architects.

•    Norma manages the neighbouring rights of performing artists such as actors, musicians and dancers.

•    Sena distributes the monies for audio from neighbouring rights for the use of music for performing musicians and record companies.

•    Stichting UvO manages the copyright of publishers. The Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences had concluded a collective agreement with Stichting PRO for the use of short passages in universities of applied sciences.

•    Videma manages the copyright of the rightholders of film works. The Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences had concluded a collective agreement with Videma for screening film works in universities of applied sciences.

•    VOICE is the organisation in which all of these collective management organisations are united. They also handle the CS hallmark which is tested annually by an independent auditor.

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The English word used for auteursrecht. Although auteursrecht is almost always translated using the term copyright this translation is not strictly correct.

There is a subtle difference between these two terms because they refer to two rights systems based on different principles.

Copyright (droit d’auteur) protects the author as a natural person. Based on copyright, the author acquires what is known as moral rights, which are inalienable in most cases. Copyright is more to protect the investment that has been made in a work. There are no moral rights in this system.

The copyright regime predominates in Anglo Saxon countries such as the United States, Great Britain and Australia. Auteursrecht applies in countries in continental Europe and their former colonies. 

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What is copyright?

Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an organisation that has developed a number of copyright licences under which a creator can grant others advance permission to reuse their work, such as copying and publishing, at no cost.

Creative Commons licences are based on four building blocks. These building blocks set four conditions of use which can be combined into six different licences. The four building blocks are: 
•    There must be attribution 
•    Only non-commercial reuse is permitted 
•    Derivatives are permitted 
•    A derivative must be published under the same CC licence as the original work (share alike); this licence stimulates the growth of use of CC licences.

The attribution condition is a mandatory component of every licence. The licences can be combined together. But permitting derivatives and indicating that a derivative must be published under the same CC licence are not compatible in one and the same licence. As a result of this, six different combinations are possible.

In addition to the actual licences there are also two other tools, namely the CC0 public domain dedication and the Public Domain Mark. These are not licences, but ways of making clear that the rightholder wishes to waive their copyright or that it is a work that is not subject to copyright (any longer).

A rightholder who wants to place their work on the Internet can therefore decide to associate it with a CC licence; one that indicates that a derivative must be published under the same CC licence for instance. Others are then free to reuse the work for education purposes also. We therefore strongly recommend using the CC licence for publishing your own material. However, the person wanting to publish the material must actually own all of the rights.

The CC licences are only one variant under which the author specifies the extent to which his or her work can be further distributed and the conditions under which this is permitted. There are other licences with a similar effect to the CC licence. An author who publishes their work under these types of licences must always make it known. If there is no mention of licence conditions, it must be assumed that permission for reuse has not been granted.

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Intellectual property rights

Intellectual property rights relate to the copyright, neighbouring rights, database rights and industrial property legal areas.

Copyright is regulated under the Dutch Copyright Act, the Neighbouring Rights Act and the Database Act among others. A special form of copyright is music copyright. Author contract law was changed in mid-2015. The most important changes made are the right to fair compensation, deed required for a licence and the best-seller clause.

Industrial property includes patent rights, trademark rights, trade name rights, drawing and models rights, chip rights, topography rights and breeder’s rights. For instance, trade mark rights include registering a trade mark with the BBIE in The Hague. 

Leenrecht (in Dutch)

De regels omtrent het uitlenen van auteursrechtelijk materiaal door bibliotheken (Auteurswet: artikelen 12, 15c-g).

Stichting Leenrecht incasseert en verdeelt de leenrechtvergoedingen.

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Open access

Under the Budapest Open Access Initiative, an article is ‘open access’ if the article can freely be downloaded, copied, distributed, printed or searched.

The author has granted a non-exclusive licence for wide (re)use, but has retained copyright. The latter even allows the work to be made accessible via the Internet or to be used as material for lectures. Therefore, it is important to know what freedom copyright provides for allowing ‘open access’ publication.

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Agreement on the publication of film works

The agreement for publishing film works is an agreement between the copyright collecting society Videma (manages the copyright of the rightholders of film works) and the universities of applied sciences (through the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences).

This agreement grants permission for the free use of TV programmes and films such as those represented by VidemaVidema represents all TV programmes that are broadcast on the public broadcasting corporation channels and a large number of commercial channels. The Videma licence conditions apply to the use.

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Preserveringskopie (in Dutch)

Bibliotheken mogen een kopie van rechtmatig verkregen materiaal maken om dit 'voor verval te behoeden'.

De Auteurswet geeft in artikel 16n nauwkeurig de grenzen voor het maken van een preserveringskopie. Het mag alleen voor de restauratie van een exemplaar, voor het voorkomen van verval van het exemplaar van het werk, of om een exemplaar van het werk raadpleegbaar te houden als de technologie in onbruik raakt.

Reader scheme

The Reader scheme is a contract between the Dutch Publishers Association (Nederlands Uitgeversverbond – NUV) / Stichting PRO (Publication and Reproduction Rights Organisation) and higher education (through the Association of Universities in the Netherlands (VSNU) and Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences).

This contract contains agreements on copying copyright protected material to educational publications, such as readers. This contract relates to both the conditions and to the ‘fair’ compensation.

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Reprorecht (in Dutch)

De mogelijkheid voor personen verbonden aan instellingen en bedrijven om te kopiëren uit kranten, tijdschriften, boeken en ander auteursrechtelijk beschermd werk (Auteurswet: artikel 1 en 16h).

Stichting Reprorecht incasseert en verdeelt de reprorechtvergoedingen.

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Stichting Reprorecht Onderwijs


A repository is a system (hardware and software), with associated processes and support, that can contain information in various forms (e.g. texts, data sets, image or sound).

Higher education institutions provide their publications and research data via repositories. Nationally, the Higher Professional Education Knowledge Bank (HBO Kennisbank) and NARCIS provide access to publications and research data from the repositories of institutions such as universities of applied sciences and research universities.

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SHERPA/RoMEO is the most important database with the policy of scientific publishers in the field of Open Access.

RoMEO is short for RightsMEtadata for Open Archiving. The database makes it possible to see, in a clear and uniform way, the Open Access options provided by a specific periodical.

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Thuiskopie (in Dutch)

Een thuiskopie is de aanduiding voor een foto-, tekst- of digitale kopie die iemand voor eigen oefening, studie of gebruik maakt.

Stichting Thuiskopie incasseert en verdeelt de thuiskopievergoedingen.

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Statement by the provider of a work in which they declare that either they own the rights to the material or that they indemnify someone else against any and all claims that a third party could make regarding the material.